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Hypomanic shift observed during rTMS treatment of patients with unipolar depressive disorder: four case reports

Eylem Ozten, Gokben Hizli Sayar* and Oguz Karamustafalioglu

Author Affiliations

NPIstanbul Hospital, Uskudar University, Alemdag Cad. Siteyolu Sk. No:27, Istanbul, Umraniye 34675, Turkey

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Annals of General Psychiatry 2013, 12:12  doi:10.1186/1744-859X-12-12

Published: 24 April 2013



Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance the excitement of the brain through adjusting the biological activities of the cerebral cortex and has wide biological effects, making it one basic mechanism of therapy for depression. In the treatment of unipolar depressive disorder, almost in every treatment method, hypomanic and manic shifts can be observed. There is still a lack of data regarding manic and hypomanic symptoms triggered by rTMS applications.


We describe four cases with unipolar depression in which high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex applied as an add-on antidepressive strategy may have induced a hypomanic episode.


In these cases, 25 Hz rTMS combined with antidepressants may have contributed to the occurrence of hypomanic symptoms.


Using an intensive methodology of rTMS may induce hypomanic or manic symptoms.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Depression; Hypomania