Table 2 |
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Long-term trauma-related stress reaction, psychological distress, and anxiety in mothers following preterm birth | |||||
N | Means (SD) | Estimated marginal means | Standard error | p value by time | |
IES total (0–75) | |||||
T_{0} | 29 | 19.7 (10.8) | 19.7 (15.5, 23.8) a | 2.1 | p < 0.001 |
T_{1} | 27 | 13.7 (11.5) | 13.0 (8.8, 17.3) b | 2.1 | |
T_{2} | 27 | 11.9 (9.7) | 11.2 (7.0, 15.5) b | 2.1 | |
T_{3} | 26 | 10.2 (11.9) | 10.1 (5.8, 14.4) b | 2.1 | |
GHQ Likert (0–90) | |||||
T_{0} | 29 | 40.0 (15.4) | 39.9 (34.4, 45.5) a | 2.8 | p < 0.001 |
T_{1} | 27 | 30.3 (13.4) | 29.9 (24.2, 35.6) b | 2.9 | |
T_{2} | 27 | 29.3 (17.1) | 28.9 (23.2, 34.7) b | 2.9 | |
T_{3} | 26 | 24.2 (13.9) | 23.7 (17.9, 29.5) b | 2.9 | |
GHQ case (0–30) | |||||
T_{0} | 29 | 12.8 (7.5) | 12.8 (10.1, 15.4) a | 1.3 | p < 0.001 |
T_{1} | 27 | 7.7 (6.6) | 7.5 (4.8, 10.2) b | 1.4 | |
T_{2} | 27 | 6.2 (7.7) | 5.9 (3.2, 8.6) b | 1.4 | |
T_{3} | 26 | 4.0 (6.4) | 3.7 (0.9, 6.4) b | 1.4 | |
STAI-X1 (0–40)^{a} | |||||
T_{0} | 29 | 21.5 (2.8) | 21.5 (20.5, 22.4) a | 0.5 | p = 0.001 |
T_{1} | 27 | 23.8 (2.7) | 23.8 (22.8, 24.7) b | 0.5 | |
T_{2} | 27 | 23.3 (2.3) | 23.3 (22.4, 24.3) b | 0.5 | |
T_{3} | 26 | 22.8 (1.8) | 22.9 (21.9, 23.8) ab | 0.5 |
Means (SD) and estimated marginal means (95% confidence intervals) with standard errors from linear mixed model statistical analysis of the IES, GHQ and STAI-X1 at 2 weeks after birth (T0), 2 weeks post-discharge from hospital (T1), infant's 6-month post-term age (T3) and infant's 18-month post-term age (T4). Same letter of estimated marginal means within each instrument at different observation times indicates that the estimates are not statistically different at p < 0.05 from each other. For example, for three given estimates with a, ab and b, the first a is only significantly different from the third b, and the middle one ab is not significantly different from the others (a or b). ^{a}Ten-question version of STAI-X1.
Misund et al.
Misund et al. Annals of General Psychiatry 2013 12:33 doi:10.1186/1744-859X-12-33