Table 1

Risk factors for suicide in schizophrenic outpatients and inpatients (modified from [9])

White, young, male (often under 30 years)


High premorbid expectations

Gradual onset of illness

Social isolation

Fear of further mental deterioration

Excessive treatment dependency

Loss of faith in treatment

Family stress or instability

Limited external support

Recent loss or rejection


Deteriorating health

Paranoid schizophrenia

Substance abuse

Deliberate self-harm


Chronicity of illness with numerous exacerbation

Family history of suicide

Pre-admission and intra-admission suicidal attempts

Agitation and impulsivity

Fluctuating suicidal ideation

Extrapiramidal symptoms caused by medications

Prescription of a greater number of neuroleptic and antidepressants

Increased length of stay, increased number of ward changes, discharge planning and period following discharge

Period of approved leave

Apparent improvement

Past and present history of depression

Frequent relapses and rehospitalization

Longer hospitalization periods than other psychiatric inpatients

Negative attitudes towards medication and reduced compliance with therapy

Living alone before the past admission

Charged feelings about their illness and hospital admission

Early signs of a disturbed psychosocial adjustment

Dependence and incapability of working

Difficult relationship with staff and difficult acclimation in ward environment

Hospitalization close to crucial sites (big roads, railway stations, rivers, etc).

Pompili et al. Annals of General Psychiatry 2007 6:10   doi:10.1186/1744-859X-6-10

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